glossary

Bhagavad Gita - The Bhagavad Gita (/ˈbʌɡəvəd ˈɡtɑː/; Sanskrit: भगवद्गीता, bhagavad-gītā in IAST, Sanskrit pronunciation: [ˈbʱaɡəʋəd̪ ɡiːˈt̪aː], lit. "Song of the Lord"[1]), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700[2][3] verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).

The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Lord Krishna. Facing the duty as a warrior to fight the Dharma Yudhha or righteous war between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is counselled by Lord Krishna to "fulfill his Kshatriya (warrior) duty as a warrior and establish Dharma."[4] Inserted[4] in this appeal to kshatriya dharma (chivalry)[5] is "a dialogue ... between diverging attitudes concerning methods toward the attainment of liberation (moksha)". - Wikipedia

Bhakti - (Sanskrit: भक्ति) Bhakti literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, piety". In Hinduism, it refers to devotion to, and love for, a personal god or a representational god by a devotee. - Wikipedia

Gopala - (Sanskrit: गोपाल Gopāla, literally "cow protector") is the infant/child form of Lord Krishna, the Cowherd Boy who enchanted the Cowherd Maidens (Gopinis) with the divine sound of his flute, attracting even Kāmadeva (the Hindu god of love and passion). Historically one of the earliest forms of worship in Krishnaism or Vaishnava dharma, it is believed to be a key element of the early history of the worship of Krishna. This tradition is considered separately to other traditions that led to amalgamation at a later stage of historical development. Other traditions are Bhagavatism and the Cult of Bala Krishna, that along with the Cult of Krishna-Vasudeva form the basis of the current tradition of the monotheistic religion of Krishna. - Wikipedia

Gopi - Gopi (गोपी) is a Sanskrit word originating from the word Gopala referring to a person in charge of a herd of cows. In Hinduism especially the name gopika (feminine form of gopi) is used more commonly to refer to the group of cowherding girls famous within Vaishnavism for their unconditional devotion (Bhakti) to Krishna as described in the Bhagavata Purana and other Puranic literature. Of this group, one gopika known as Radha (or Radhika) holds a place of particularly high reverence and importance in a number of religious traditions, especially within Gaudiya Vaishnavism.[1] In Gaudiya Vaishnavism, there are 108 gopikas of Vrindavan. - Wikipedia

Govinda: Cowherd or Protector of Cows, or one who gives pleasure to senses - Wikipedia

HARE KRISHNA - The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra ("Great Mantra"), is a Vaishnava mantra which is mentioned in the Kali-Santarana Upanishad, and which from the 15th century rose to importance in the Bhakti movement following the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. This Mantra is composed of three Sanskrit names of the Supreme Being; "Hare", "Krishna", and "Rama". According to Gaudiya Vaishnava theology, one's original consciousness and goal of life is pure love of god (Krishna). Since the 1960s, the mantra has been made well known outside India by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada and his International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as "the Hare Krishnas") - Wikipedia

Kirtan - Kirtana or Kirtan (Sanskrit: कीर्तन; IAST: Kīrtana) is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, reciting, telling, describing" of an idea or story.[1][2] It also refers to a genre of religious performance arts, connoting a musical form of narration or shared recitation, particularly of spiritual or religious ideas.[1]

With roots in the Vedic anukirtana tradition, a Kirtana is a call-and-response style song or chant, set to music, wherein multiple singers recite or describe a legend, or express loving devotion to a deity, or discuss spiritual ideas.[3] It may include dancing or direct expression of bhavas (emotive states) by the singer.[3] Many Kirtana performances are structured to engage the audience where they either repeat the chant,[4] or reply to the call of the singer.[5][6][7]

A person performing kirtana is known as a kirtankara (or kirtankar).[8][9] A Kirtan performance includes an accompaniment of regionally popular musical instruments, such as the harmonium, the veena or ektara (forms of string instruments), the tabla (one-sided drums), the mrdanga or pakhawaj (two-sided drum), flute (forms of woodwind instruments), and karatalas or talas (cymbals).[10] It is a major practice in Vaisnava devotionalism, Sikhism, the Sant traditions and some forms of Buddhism, as well as other religious groups. Kirtana is sometimes accompanied by story-telling and acting. Texts typically cover religious, mythological or social subjects. - Wikipedia

Radhe - Radha (IAST: Rādhā), also called Radhika, Radharani, and Radhe, is a Hindu goddess popular in the Vaishnavism tradition. She is a milkmaid (gopi), the lover, Chief Queen and spouse of the Hindu god Krishna in the medieval era texts.[4][5] She is also a part of Shaktism – the Hindu goddess tradition, and considered an avatar of Lakshmi.[6][7][1]

Radha is worshipped in some regions of India, particularly by Vaishnavas in West Bengal, Assam, Manipur and Odisha. Elsewhere, she is revered in the Nimbarka Sampradaya and movements linked to Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and Chandidas.[8][9]

Radha is considered a metaphor for soul, her longing for Krishna theologically seen as a symbolism for the longing for spirituality and the divine.[10] She has inspired numerous literary works,[8] and her Rasa lila dance with Krishna has inspired many types of performance arts till this day. - Wikipedia

Ruma Jhuma - The ankle bells of the Gopis make the sound "ruma jhuma" hoping to get Krishna's attention.

Shyam - is a name of Krishna and an Indian masculine given name and surname. - Wikipedia

Sri - (Devanagari: श्री, IAST: Śrī, IPA: /ʃɹiː/ or /ɕɹiː/, pronounced 'shree'), also transliterated as Sree, Shri, Shree, Si or Seri is a word of Sanskrit origin, used in the Indian subcontinent as a polite form of address equivalent to the English "Mr." or "Ms." in written and spoken language, but also as a title of veneration for deities. It is also widely used in other South and Southeast Asian languages. - Wikipedia

Yoga - In Sanskrit, the word yoga comes from the root yuj which means "to add", "to join", "to unite", or "to attach" in its most common senses. - Wikipedia